Over 500 million people worldwide are infected with chronic liver pathogens including chronic hepatitis viruses and zoonotic liver flukes, which leads to severe liver diseases. Additionally, several studies have demonstrated that HIV co-infection exacerbate chronic HBV/HCV-induced liver diseases, resulting in increased mortality. The increased prevalence of obesity and metabolic syndrome-associated non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in the United States and other developed countries also contributes to the global liver disease burden, with approximately 25% of the US population affected. The development of therapeutics against these diseases has been hindered by the lack of robust small animal models that accurately recapitulates human disease; in most cases rodents are not susceptible to infections or are resistant to disease. The lack of robust small animal models of human infectious diseases also poses a major hindrance in studying emerging diseases such as Zika virus.
Innate immune cell infiltration including macrophage infiltration is a major component of the inflammatory milieu associated with chronic liver infections, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and most human infections. Importantly, macrophages play a critical role in innate immune response, modulating gut microbiota, macronutrients (i.e., iron, lipids, etc.) sensing and metabolism, and tissue integrity/remodeling; therefore, elucidating the role of macrophage activation in human infectious diseases and metabolic syndrome-associated diseases will provide novel insight into the mechanisms of immune dysregulation and tissue pathogenesis.
The Bility lab is broadly interested in elucidating the role of macrophage polarization in human infectious diseases and obesity/metabolic syndrome-associated diseases utilizing humanized mouse models carrying autologous functional human immune system, human liver cells and other human organ systems along with strong emphasis on collaborative translational research with clinical investigators.
Major research efforts are: 1) Elucidating the role of macrophage polarization in chronic liver infections (HBV, HCV, liver fluke), HIV-hepatitis virus co-infections and associated liver diseases; 2) Elucidating the nexus between macrophage polarization and gut microbiota in fatty diet-induced non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and associated liver diseases; 3) Developing humanized mouse model for human diseases, including viral hepatitis, HIV, arbovirus, etc.
In addition to his biomedical research, Dr. Bility also has strong interests in health security and pandemic/disaster response and management. Dr. Bility has extensive training and expertise in medical planning and operations for various contingencies including pandemic, chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN) disaster events in both domestic and international conditions.